How to Install Wall Tile Backsplash


Installing a tile backsplash in your kitchen or bathroom can transform the look and feel of the space, while also providing an easy-to-clean and eye-catching focal point. With the right preparation, materials, and techniques, you can achieve stunning results—even as a DIYer.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk through all the steps and considerations for tiling your backsplash from start to finish. We’ll cover how to choose your tile, prepare your wall surface, lay out the design, cut the tiles, apply adhesive and grout, and finally seal and maintain your new backsplash. Follow along with us below to gain the skills and knowledge for creating your own professional-looking tiled backsplash installation.

Choose Your Tile

The tile itself will set the tone for your whole backsplash design, so invest time in choosing one that aligns with your goals, lifestyle, and aesthetic. Here are the key factors to consider:


  • Ceramic – Classic, durable, and affordable option available in countless shapes, sizes, colors, and patterns. The most common backsplash tile.
  • Porcelain – Similar aesthetics to ceramic but denser and even more impervious to moisture. Withstands heat better.
  • Glass – Gorgeous reflective sheen. Transparent, opaque, or colored varieties available. Prone to chipping so best avoided for heavy use kitchen areas.
  • Stone – Elegant natural look and feel. Marble, travertine, granite, slate, and onyx are popular choices. Requires extra sealing.
  • Metal – Brings contemporary, industrial vibe. Often used for mosaics or accents. Stainless steel, tin, copper, nickel, and bronze are options.


  • Smaller tiles like mosaics provide more grout lines and texture.
  • Larger tiles create a smoother, more seamless appearance.
  • Mixing sizes can add visual interest. Many designers recommend a ratio of 3:1 or 4:1 for main tiles to accent tiles.


  • Match or contrast your tiles with cabinetry, countertops, appliances, paint colors, and other finishes in the space.
  • Monochromatic, tone-on-tone, or boldly contrasting—different choices create different moods.
  • If using patterned tile, balance busyness with plainer tiles so it doesn’t overwhelm.
  • Complementary colors and patterns can make the design more cohesive.


  • Matte, satin, or glossy? Finish impacts the sheen on the tile surface.
  • Matte is nicely soft and muted. Glossy ups the glam factor. Satin is between the two.
  • Consider ease of cleaning when choosing—glossy can be harder to keep streak-free.


  • Ceramic and porcelain tiles tend to be the most budget-friendly options.
  • Stone, metal, glass, and mosaic tiles cost more on average.
  • Choose the best tile you can afford while staying within project budget. Quality matters here.


  • For kitchen backsplashes, avoid very porous or textured surfaces that can accumulate grease and grime.
  • Prioritize durability and heat-resistance (i.e. porcelain or ceramic) behind cooktops.
  • For bathrooms, be sure tiles can withstand humidity and wetness from steamy showers.

Quantities to Purchase

Once you’ve selected your tile, it’s time to estimate how much you need to purchase. Measure the total square footage of your backsplash area, then:

  • Tile: Multiply square footage by 1.15 to have extra in case of breakage or mistakes.
  • Adhesive: Estimate 1/4 gallon per 25 sq ft of tile.
  • Grout: For every 10 sq ft of tile, you’ll need about 1.5 lbs of grout.

Have at least 10-15% extra of adhesive and grout on hand too. Don’t forget spacers! The rule of thumb is 1 spacer per 1 sq ft of tile.

Tools/Materials Needed

Assembling the right equipment will make tiling much smoother. Be sure you have:


  • Tape measure
  • Pencil
  • Straight edge/level
  • Tile cutter (snap cutter or wet saw)
  • Mixing bucket
  • Notched trowel
  • Grout float
  • Sponge
  • Clean cloths


  • Tile
  • Tile spacers
  • Tile adhesive
  • Grout
  • Grout sealer
  • Backer board (if needed)
  • Construction adhesive (if using backer)
  • Silicone caulk

Safety gear:

  • Knee pads
  • Safety glasses/goggles
  • Dust mask
  • Ear protection
  • Gloves

A helper is useful too for mixing, loading buckets, handing tools, and assisting with tile sheets.

Prep the Surface

Preparing the wall surface is a crucial first step for a long-lasting backsplash installation.

Clean Thoroughly

Start by fully cleaning the installation area. Remove any dust, grease, or grime so the tile and adhesive bond well. For painted walls, scrub with TSP to degloss.

Assess Surface Flatness

The substrate underneath your tile must be as flat and even as possible. Use a straight edge or level tool to check for significant humps, bowing, or uneven spots.

For drywall, joint compound can be used to smooth small imperfections up to 1/8 inch.

Install Backer Board

If drywall is wavy beyond 1/8 inch, it’s best to install a backer board like cement, fiber-cement board, or Durock over the entire area. Secure it with construction adhesive and screws. This provides a flat, stable surface for tiling.

Seams can be taped and mudded to prevent movement. Be sure the backer board is gap-free.

Tip: In bathrooms, use mold-resistant backer board or cement board.

Waterproof Surface

For kitchen backsplashes prone to splashes and moisture, it’s wise to waterproof before tiling.

RedGard®, AquaDefense®, and other membrane products create water barriers when rolled or painted on. Use as instructed.

Let any waterproofing coatings fully dry before adding tile above.

Prime Absorbent Surfaces

Substrates like cement backer board, fiber-cement, plaster, and drywall need proper priming before tiling. Use a tile primer suited for the material. This improves adhesive bonding strength.

Plan Your Layout

Now it’s time for the fun creative part—envisioning your backsplash layout! Here are some tips:

Make a Scale Drawing

Sketch your backsplash area with exact measurements on graph paper. Experiment with tile arrangements and patterns. This allows you to visualize the scale and proportions.

Decide on a Pattern

Common backsplash patterns include:

  • Stacked – Simple grid pattern
  • Brick pattern – Offsetting grid
  • Penny tile – Mosaic of small rounded tiles
  • Herringbone – Angled tile pattern
  • Subway tile – Classic rectangular shape
  • Hexagonal – Honeycomb pattern of hex tiles

Mixing patterns can create interest too. Get creative!

Choose a Focal Point

Determine where you want the most eye-catching elements like statement tiles or banding.

Popular backsplash accent locations include directly behind cooktops or sinks.

Include Functional Touches

Plan functional niches for storing spices, paper towels, dishes, or soap dispensers. Allow at least 3 inches of exposed wall around the edges.

Cut tile around outlets, switches, and fixtures as needed.

Balance Simplicity with Complexity

Simple layouts highlight beautiful tile and grout lines, while complex patterns offer visual intrigue. Find the right balance for your space and style.

Cut the Tiles

Cutting or shaping the border and accent tiles allow you to customize the installation for a perfect fit. Here’s how to do it:

Measure Precisely

Using a pencil, ruler, square, and angle finder, carefully measure and mark each tile that needs cutting. Transfer lines fully across the front of the tile.

Take time here for accuracy—measure twice, cut once!

Use a Snap Tile Cutter

For straight cuts on ceramic or porcelain, a snap tile cutter is quick and effective. Position the tile face up with the cutting mark aligned under the cutting wheel. Compress the handles together to score the tile, then snap downward evenly.

Use a Wet Saw

A wet saw with a diamond tile blade can make straight, L-shaped, U-shaped, or hole cuts. Run water over the blade while cutting to minimize dust and overheating.

Work slowly and cautiously. Let the blade do the cutting.

Smooth the Edges

Rub cut edges with a sharpening stone to remove rough spots or sharp points that could cut fingers or show under grout lines. Bevel the edges slightly so cut tiles sit flush with the field.

Apply the Tile Adhesive

Adhesive selection and application are imperative for a long-lasting backsplash installation. Follow these tips:

Choose the Right Adhesive

For wall tiles in dry areas, “dry-set” mortar works well. In wet areas like behind sinks, use “modified thinset” instead, as it offers greater adhesion and moisture resistance once cured.

Match adhesive specifications to tile material for the best bond. Consult manufacturer guidelines.

Mix Thoroughly

In a clean bucket, combine adhesive powder with the proper ratio of clean water (per instructions). Mix vigorously with a paddle to fully incorporate powder into the water, leaving no lumps or dry pockets. Let the mixture slake for 10 minutes before use.

Load the Trowel Properly

Using a notched trowel of the recommended size, scoop a small amount of adhesive onto it and spread it onto the wall area. Maintain an even depth, keeping notched ridges consistent.

Only cover a workable area so tile can be applied before the thinset dries or “skins over.”

Apply Tile in Sections

Beginning near your focal point, apply tiles in 2 ft x 2 ft sections, using spacers to maintain even grout lines.

Push tiles firmly into the adhesive using some twisting action to collapse the trowel ridges. Be sure tiles are fully embedded flat in the thinset.

Check levels often and make alignment adjustments quickly before adhesive dries. Clean up excess or squeezed out adhesive as you go along edges.

Grout Application

Grouting seals the joints between tiles, renders the whole surface waterproof, and allows for artful accenting with different grout colors. Here’s how to grout your backsplash right:

Let Adhesive Cure

Allow tile adhesive to fully cure as indicated before grouting, usually around 24 hours. This prevents tiles from shifting when you apply grout.

Mix and Apply Grout

In a bucket, combine grout powder with water per package instructions and mix well. Apply over the tile surface using a rubber grout float, packing it deeply into joints.

Keep grout edges clean as you work in small sections. Wipe diagonally across tiles.

Clean Grout Haze

Once grout becomes firm, after around 15-30 minutes, scrub tiles firmly with a damp sponge in diagonals to remove haze and smooth joints. Rinse sponge frequently.

Polish with a soft, dry cloth once the cleaning is complete. Allow grout to fully cure 24-48 hours before exposure to moisture.

Seal Grout

Sealing grout is an important step to make it stain and water resistant. Use a grout sealer suitable for your grout type, allowing it to soak and cure as directed. Re-seal grout once a year.

Finish the Installation

You’re in the home stretch! Just a few more steps to complete your tile backsplash project:

Apply Perimeter Sealant

Once cured, apply a thin bead of silicone caulk between the tiles and countertop, cabinets, walls, or any surrounding areas. Smooth with a wet finger if needed. This flexion point caulking prevents cracks.

Make Final Grout Repairs

Allow the grout to fully cure, then inspect for any low spots or gaps around tiles. Re-grout these areas to ensure waterproof coverage.

Clean the Surface

Use a specialized tile cleaner to remove residue, dust, dirt. For grout, routinely use a cleaner and whitener formulated for grout. This keeps it bright and uniform.

Be gentle, avoid harsh chemicals, test in inconspicuous areas first.

With that, stand back and admire your stunning new backsplash installation!

Frequently Asked Questions

What tools do I need to install a tile backsplash?

The essential tools you need include a tape measure, pencil, tile cutter (snap cutter or wet saw), mixing bucket, notched trowel, grout float, sponges, and cloths. Safety gear like gloves and eye protection is also recommended.

How do I cut tile around outlets and switches?

Carefully measure and mark the tile where it needs cut around fixtures. Use a sharp utility knife to score the surface where the cut is needed, then snap tile along the score line. Use a rotating tool or small wet saw to cut any curved openings.

Can I apply tile over existing backsplash?

It is not generally recommended to tile over an existing backsplash. Old tile or other finishes need to be fully removed down the studs or to the wall surface. Any wall imperfections must be flattened for proper adhesion.

Is backer board required under backsplash tile?

Backer board is only required if the wall surface is not perfectly smooth and level. Drywall can have up to 1/8-inch imperfections skimmed with joint compound. Beyond that, a cement board backer provides a flat substrate for tiling.

How long does tile adhesive take to dry?

Tile adhesive drying times vary by product, humidity level, and temperature, but generally take 12-24 hours to become fully cured and ready for grouting. Always follow manufacturer guidelines for recommended cure times.


We hope you now feel confident to install a stunning backsplash in your kitchen or bath. The project takes careful planning, precision cutting, proper tools and materials, and attention to detail—but the results are well worth it.

Just take it step-by-step, work carefully and patiently, and your new backsplash is sure to be a source of pride and enjoyment for years to come. From choosing your perfect tile to expertly cutting, adhesive, grouting, and finishing, you’ve got this!